ConstrainedQuadraticModel.flip_variable(v: Hashable)[source]

Flip the specified binary variable in the objective and constraints.

Note that this may terminate a constraint’s status as a discrete constraint (see add_discrete()). Subsequently flipping the variable again does not restore that status.


v – Variable label of a BINARY or SPIN variable.


ValueError – If given a non-binary variable to flip.


This example flips \(x\) in an objective, \(2xy-2x\), which is equivalent for binary variables with values \(\{0, 1\}\) to the substitution \(x \Rightarrow 1-x\), creating a new objective, \(2xy-2x \Rightarrow 2(1-x)y -2(1-x) = 2y -2xy -2 -2x\).

>>> cqm = dimod.ConstrainedQuadraticModel()
>>> x, y = dimod.Binaries(["x", "y"])
>>> cqm.set_objective(2 * x * y - 2 * x)
>>> cqm.flip_variable("x")
>>> print(cqm.objective.to_polystring())
-2 + 2*x + 2*y - 2*x*y

The next example flips a variable in a one-hot constraint. Subsequently fixing one of this discrete constaint’s binary variables to 1 does not ensure the remaining variables are assigned 0.

>>> r, b, g = dimod.Binaries(["red", "blue", "green"])
>>> cqm.add_discrete_from_comparison(r + b + g == 1, label="One color")
'One color'
>>> cqm.flip_variable("red")
>>> cqm.fix_variable("blue", 1, cascade=True)