# Workflow Steps: Formulation and Sampling¶

The two main steps of solving problems on quantum computers are:

**Formulate your problem as an objective function**Objective (cost) functions are mathematical expressions of the problem to be optimized; for quantum computing, these are quadratic models1 that have lowest values (energy) for good solutions to the problems they represent.

**Find good solutions by sampling**Samplers are processes that sample from low-energy states of objective functions. Find good solutions by submitting your quadratic model to one of a variety of Ocean’s quantum, classical, and hybrid quantum-classical samplers.

- 1
Quadratic models have one or two variables per term. A simple example of a quadratic model is,

\[Ax + By + Cxy\]where \(A\), \(B\), and \(C\) are constants. Single-variable terms—\(Ax\) and \(By\) here—are linear with the constant biasing the term’s variable. Two-variable terms—\(Cxy\) here—are quadratic with a relationship between the variables.