Discrete Quadratic Models

The discrete quadratic model (DQM) is a polynomial over discrete variables with terms all of degree two or less. Suppose that there are \(N\) discrete variables \(\bf{d}_i\), each with \(n_i\) cases. Conceptually, the cases may represent any collection of discrete values, such as {red, green, blue, yellow} or {3.2, 67}. Using a binary variable \(x_{i,u}\) to indicate whether discrete variable \(\bf{d}_i\) is set to case \(u\), the objective function can be expressed by the equation:

\[E(\bf{x}) = \sum_{i=1}^N \sum_{u=1}^{n_i} a_{i,u} x_{i,u} + \sum_{i=1}^N \sum_{j=i+1}^N \sum_{u=1}^{n_i} \sum_{v=1}^{n_j} b_{i,j,u,v} x_{i,u} x_{j,v} + c\]

The dimod.DiscreteQuadraticModel class can contain this model and its methods provide convenient utilities for working with representations of a problem.

These models and their use in solving problems on the D-Wave system are described in the following documentation: