Model Generators#
Model generators for optimization problems.
- bin_packing(weights: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, capacity: float) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a bin packing problem.
The bin packing problem, BPP, seeks to find the smallest number of bins that will fit a set of weighted items given that each bin has a weight capacity.
- Parameters:
weights – A 1D array-like (row vector or Python list) of weights per item. Weights can be any non-negative number.
capacity – Maximum capacity of each bin. Must be a positive number.
- Returns:
A model encoding the BPP problem.
- capacitated_vehicle_routing(demand: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, number_of_vehicles: int, vehicle_capacity: float, distances: numpy.typing.ArrayLike | None = None, locations_x: numpy.typing.ArrayLike | None = None, locations_y: numpy.typing.ArrayLike | None = None, depot_x_y: numpy.typing.ArrayLike | None = None) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a capacitated vehicle routing problem.
The capacitated vehicle routing problem, CVRP, is to find the shortest possible routes for a fleet of vehicles delivering to multiple customer locations from a central depot. Vehicles have a specified delivery capacity, and on the routes to locations and then back to the depot, no vehicle is allowed to exceed its carrying capacity.
- Parameters:
demand – Customer demand, as an array-like. If
distances
is specified, the first element must be zero. Ifdistances
is not specified and the first element is zero,[locations_x[0], locations_y[0]]
must be the location of the depot. Elements other than the first must be positive numbers.number_of_vehicles – Number of available vehicles, as an integer.
vehicle_capacity – Maximum capacity for any vehicle. The total delivered demand by any vehicle on any route must not exceed this value.
distances – Distances between all the problem’s locations, as an array-like of positive numbers, including both customer sites and the depot. When specified, the first element of
demand
must be zero and specifyingX coordinates
orX coordinates
is not supportedlocations_x – X coordinates, as an array-like, of locations for customers, and optionally the depot. When specified, 2D Euclidean distances are calculated and specifying
distances
is not supported. If the first element represents the X coordinate of the depot, the first element ofdemand
must be zero.locations_y – Y coordinates, as an array-like, of locations for customers, and optionally the depot. When specified, 2D Euclidean distances are calculated and specifying
distances
is not supported. If the first element represents the Y coordinate of the depot, the first element ofdemand
must be zero.depot_x_y – Location of the depot, as an array-like of exactly two elements,
[X, Y]
. Required if the first element ofdemand
is nonzero anddistances
is not specified; not allowed otherwise.
- Returns:
A model encoding the CVRP problem.
Notes
The model uses a
disjoint_lists
class as the decision variable being optimized, with permutations of its sublist representing various itineraries for each vehicle.
- flow_shop_scheduling(processing_times: numpy.typing.ArrayLike) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a flow-shop scheduling problem.
Flow-shop scheduling is a variant of the renowned
job_shop_scheduling()
optimization problem. Given n jobs to schedule on m machines, with specified processing times for each job per machine, minimize the makespan (the total length of the schedule for processing all the jobs). For every job, the i-th operation is executed on the i-th machine. No machine can perform more than one operation simultaneously.E. Taillard provides benchmark instances compatible with this generator.
Note
There are many ways to model flow-shop scheduling. The model returned by this function may or may not give the best performance for your problem.
- Parameters:
processing_times – Processing times, as an \(n \times m\) array-like of integers, where
processing_times[n, m]
is the time job n is on machine m.- Returns:
A model encoding the flow-shop scheduling problem.
Examples
This example creates a model for a flow-shop-scheduling problem with two jobs on three machines. For example, the second job requires processing for 20 time units on the first machine in the flow of operations.
>>> from dwave.optimization.generators import flow_shop_scheduling ... >>> processing_times = [[10, 5, 7], [20, 10, 15]] >>> model = flow_shop_scheduling(processing_times=processing_times)
- job_shop_scheduling(times: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, machines: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, *, upper_bound: int | None = None) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a job-shop scheduling problem.
Job-shop scheduling has many variant. Here, what we have implemented is a variant of job-shop scheduling with the additional assumption that every job makes use of every machine.
E. Taillard provides benchmark instances compatible with this generator.
The model generated is based on the one proposed in L. Blaise, “Modélisation et résolution de problèmes d’ordonnancement au sein du solveur d’optimisation mathématique LocalSolver”, Université de Toulouse, https://hal-lirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/LAAS-ROC/tel-03923149v2
Note
There are many ways to model job-shop scheduling. The model returned by this function may or may not give the best performance for your problem.
- Parameters:
times – An
n
jobs bym
machines array-like wheretimes[n, m]
is the processing time of jobn
on machinem
.machines – An
n
jobs bym
machines array-like wheremachines[n, :]
is the order of machines that jobn
will be processed on.upper_bound – An upper bound on the makespan. If not given, defaults to
times.sum()
. Note that if the upper_bound is too small the model may be infeasible.
- Returns:
A model encoding the job-shop scheduling problem.
- knapsack(values: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, weights: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, capacity: float) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a knapsack problem.
The knapsack problem is, for a given set of items, each with a weight and a value, determine which items to include in the collection so that the total weight is less than or equal to a given limit and the total value is as large as possible.
- Parameters:
values – A 1D array-like (row vector or Python list) of values per item. The length of
values
must be equal to the length ofweights
. Values can be any non-negative number.weights – A 1D array-like (row vector or Python list) of weights per item. Weights can be any non-negative number.
capacity – Maximum capacity of the knapsack. Must be a positive number.
- Returns:
A model encoding the knapsack problem.
The model generated uses a
dwave.optimization.Model.set
class as the decision variable being optimized, with permutations of subsets of this set representing possible items included in the knapsack.
- quadratic_assignment(distance_matrix: numpy.typing.ArrayLike, flow_matrix: numpy.typing.ArrayLike) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a quadratic assignment problem.
The quadratic assignment is, for a given list of facilities, the distances between them, and the flow between each pair of facilities, minimize the sum of the products of distances and flows.
- Parameters:
distance_matrix – An array-like where
distance_matrix[n, m]
is the distance between locationn
andm
. Represents the (known and constant) distances between every possible pair of facility locations: in real-world problems, such a matrix can be generated from an application with access to an online map.flow_matrix – A array-like where
flow_matrix[n, m]
is the flow between locationn
andm
. Represents the (known and constant) flow between every possible pair of facility location
- Returns:
A model encoding the quadratic_assignment problem.
- traveling_salesperson(distance_matrix: numpy.typing.ArrayLike) Model [source]#
Generate a model encoding a traveling-salesperson problem.
The traveling salesperson is, for a given a list of cities and distances between each pair of cities, to find the shortest possible route that visits each city exactly once and returns to the city of origin.
- Parameters:
distance_matrix – An array-like where
distance_matrix[n, m]
is the distance between cityn
andm
. Represents the (known and constant) distances between every possible pair of cities: in real-world problems, such a matrix can be generated from an application with access to an online map.- Returns:
A model encoding the traveling-salesperson problem.
Typically, solver performance strongly depends on the size of the solution space for your modelled problem: models with smaller spaces of feasible solutions tend to perform better than ones with larger spaces. A powerful way to reduce the feasible-solutions space is by using variables that act as implicit constraints. This is analogous to judicious typing of a variable to meet but not exceed its required assignments: a Boolean variable,
x
, has a solution space of size 2 (\(\{True, False\}\)) while an integer variable,i
, might have a solution space of over 4 billion values.The model generated uses a
dwave.optimization.Model.list
class as the decision variable being optimized, with permutations of this ordered list representing possible itineraries through the required cities.The
dwave.optimization.Model.list
class used to represent the decision variable as an ordered list is implicitly constrained in the possible values that can be assigned to it; for example, compare a model representing five cities as five variables of typeint
, \(i_{Rome}, i_{Turin}, i_{Naples}, i_{Milan}, i_{Genoa}\), where \(i_{Rome} = 2\) means Rome is the third city visited, versus a model using an ordered list, \((city_0, city_1, city_2, city_3, city_4)\). The first model must explicitly constrain solutions to those that select a value between 0 to 4 for each decision variable with no repetitions; such constraints are implicit to the ordered-list variable.The objective is to minimize the distance traveled. Permutations of indices \((0, 1, 2, ...)\) that order
distance_matrix
represent itineraries that travel from list-element \(i\) to list-element \(i+1\) for \(i \in [0, N-1]\), where \(N\) is the length of the list (and the number of cities). Additionally, the problem requires a return to the city of origin (first element of the list) from the last city visited (the last element of the list).